Articles  |  ,   |  February 1, 2019

How Should AI Be Developed, Validated, and Implemented in Patient Care?

Article by Michael Anderson and Susan Leigh Anderson.
Published in AMA Journal of Ethics — Case and Commentary. The case to which this commentary is a response was developed by the editorial staff.


Should an artificial intelligence (AI) program that appears to have a better success rate than human pathologists be used to replace or augment humans in detecting cancer cells? We argue that some concerns—the “black-box” problem (ie, the unknowability of how output is derived from input) and automation bias (overreliance on clinical decision support systems)—are not significant from a patient’s perspective but that expertise in AI is required to properly evaluate test results.